Nigella sativa: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains alpha-hederin, a triterpene saponin in the seeds, and is the source of black seed oil.Nigella: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE.Nigella damascena: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. The name is similar to giant fennel (FERULA), true fennel (FOENICULUM), and dog fennel (ANTHEMIS).Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Cynara scolymus: A plant species of the genus CYNARA, family ASTERACEAE. The flower bud is the familiar artichoke eaten as a vegetable.Benzoquinones: Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Hemidesmus: A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. It is a source of PREGNANES. It is sometimes an adulterant of commercial sarsaparilla.Smilax: A plant genus of the family SMILACACEAE. Members contain smiglasides (phenylpropanoid glycosides) and steroidal saponins. Commercially it is sometimes adulterated with HEMIDESMUS, which would affect experimental results.Lepidium sativum: A plant species of the genus LEPIDIUM, family BRASSICACEAE that is a fast-growing, often weedy native of western Asia. It is widely grown, especially in its curl-leaved form, and used as a garnishFunctional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Urtica dioica: A plant species of the genus Urtica, family URTICACEAE. Roots have been used to treat PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA. Leaves are edible after the stinging quality is eliminated by brief heating.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.