An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
An anthranilic acid derivative with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is used in musculoskeletal and joint disorders and administered by mouth and topically. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p16)
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more nitro groups.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein that is primarily expressed in cerebellar PURKINJE CELLS on postsynaptic DENDRITIC SPINES.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.
A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
Cephalosporin antibiotic, partly plasma-bound, that is effective against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
c-Kit positive cells related to SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that are intercalated between the autonomic nerves and the effector smooth muscle cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Different phenotypic classes play roles as pacemakers, mediators of neural inputs, and mechanosensors.
Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.
An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
Agents that affect ION PUMPS; ION CHANNELS; ABC TRANSPORTERS; and other MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.
Derivatives of orthoaminobenzoic acid that have a phenyl group bound to the orthoamino nitrogen. Members modulate ION CHANNELS and are used as ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS.
The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.
Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.
Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
The interactions between physician and patient.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.