NewsNewspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Journalism: The collection, preparation, and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, and books. While originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, with the advent of radio and television the use of the term has broadened to include all printed and electronic communication dealing with current affairs.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Communications Media: The means of interchanging or transmitting and receiving information. Historically the media were written: books, journals, newspapers, and other publications; in the modern age the media include, in addition, radio, television, computers, and information networks.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Radio: The transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of electric waves without a connecting wire, or the use of these waves for the wireless transmission of electric impulses into which sound is converted. (From Webster's 3d)Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Public Relations: Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.Role Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.Information Science: The field of knowledge, theory, and technology dealing with the collection of facts and figures, and the processes and methods involved in their manipulation, storage, dissemination, publication, and retrieval. It includes the fields of COMMUNICATION; PUBLISHING; LIBRARY SCIENCE; and informatics.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Parental Notification: Reporting to parents or guardians about care to be provided to a minor (MINORS).Persuasive Communication: A mode of communication concerned with inducing or urging the adoption of certain beliefs, theories, or lines of action by others.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.United StatesConsumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Medical Tourism: Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Humanism: An ethical system which emphasizes human values and the personal worth of each individual, as well as concern for the dignity and freedom of humankind.Terminally Ill: Persons with an incurable or irreversible illness at the end stage that will result in death within a short time. (From O'Leary et al., Lexikon: Dictionary of Health Care Terms, Organizations, and Acronyms for the Era of Reform, 1994, p780)Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Grief: Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.Professional-Family Relations: The interactions between the professional person and the family.Terrorism: The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Homicide: The killing of one person by another.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Planning Techniques: Procedures, strategies, and theories of planning.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.New South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Hospices: Facilities or services which are especially devoted to providing palliative and supportive care to the patient with a terminal illness and to the patient's family.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Rehabilitation: Restoration of human functions to the maximum degree possible in a person or persons suffering from disease or injury.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Patient Preference: Individual's expression of desirability or value of one course of action, outcome, or selection in contrast to others.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Terminal Care: Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)TennesseeDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Great BritainReinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.