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Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Urologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Nephrostomy, Percutaneous: The insertion of a catheter through the skin and body wall into the kidney pelvis, mainly to provide urine drainage where the ureter is not functional. It is used also to remove or dissolve renal calculi and to diagnose ureteral obstruction.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.