A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.
Fellowships and Scholarships
Kidney Failure, Chronic
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
A nursing specialty involving the care of patients with or at risk for KIDNEY DISEASES.
Renal Replacement Therapy
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Referral and Consultation
Directories as Topic
Education, Medical, Graduate
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
Hemodialysis Units, Hospital
Hospital units in which care is provided the hemodialysis patient. This includes hemodialysis centers in hospitals.
Refusal to Treat
Acute Kidney Injury
Neoplasms, Connective Tissue
Foreign Medical Graduates
Physicians who hold degrees from medical schools in countries other than the ones in which they practice.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Glomerular Filtration Rate
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
Standard of Care
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
Encyclopedias as Topic
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
Ambulatory Care Facilities
Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.
Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical
Vascular Access Devices
Hospital Bed Capacity
Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.