Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
A rare, aggressive variant of MULTIPLE MYELOMA characterized by the circulation of excessive PLASMA CELLS in the peripheral blood. It can be a primary manifestation of multiple myeloma or develop as a terminal complication during the disease.
Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.
A slow-growing benign pseudotumor in which plasma cells greatly outnumber the inflammatory cells.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Bahupatra (MEDICINE, AYURVEDIC) is prepared from this.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A syndecan that interacts with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and plays a role CELL PROLIFERATION and CELL MIGRATION.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Conditions characterized by the presence of M protein (Monoclonal protein) in serum or urine without clinical manifestations of plasma cell dyscrasia.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A tumor-like inflammatory lesion of the lung that is composed of PLASMA CELLS and fibrous tissue. It is also known as an inflammatory pseudotumor, often with calcification and measuring between 2 and 5 cm in diameter.
Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins that contain a short cytoplasmic domain, a single-span transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain with heparin sulfate and CHONDROITIN SULFATE chains. Syndecans interact with a variety of heparin-binding INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS and may play a role in modulating cellular signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains butrin and isobutrin.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Removal of plasma and replacement with various fluids, e.g., fresh frozen plasma, plasma protein fractions (PPF), albumin preparations, dextran solutions, saline. Used in treatment of autoimmune diseases, immune complex diseases, diseases of excess plasma factors, and other conditions.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.
A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES. It occurs as transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a secreted form that specifically binds to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; and B CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A multisystemic disorder characterized by a sensorimotor polyneuropathy (POLYNEUROPATHIES), organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and pigmentary skin changes. Other clinical features which may be present include EDEMA; CACHEXIA; microangiopathic glomerulopathy; pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY); cutaneous necrosis; THROMBOCYTOSIS; and POLYCYTHEMIA. This disorder is frequently associated with osteosclerotic myeloma. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1335; Rev Med Interne 1997;18(7):553-62)
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)
Large benign, hyperplastic lymph nodes. The more common hyaline vascular subtype is characterized by small hyaline vascular follicles and interfollicular capillary proliferations. Plasma cells are often present and represent another subtype with the plasma cells containing IgM and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A tight junction-associated MARVEL protein that may play a role in separating the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces of the ORGAN OF CORTI. Defects in the gene that codes for MARVELD2 protein are a cause of deafness autosomal recessive type 49.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that contains dihydroayapin (COUMARINS) and phenanthraquinones.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A disorder of immunoglobulin synthesis in which large quantities of abnormal heavy chains are excreted in the urine. The amino acid sequences of the N-(amino-) terminal regions of these chains are normal, but they have a deletion extending from part of the variable domain through the first domain of the constant region, so that they cannot form cross-links to the light chains. The defect arises through faulty coupling of the variable (V) and constant (C) region genes.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.
A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Glucose in blood.
Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A preparation consisting of PLATELETS concentrated in a limited volume of PLASMA. This is used in various surgical tissue regeneration procedures where the GROWTH FACTORS in the platelets enhance wound healing and regeneration.
A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for B CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 13. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.