Non-narcotic analgesic chemically similar to ORPHENADRINE. Its mechanism of action is unclear. It is used for the relief of acute and chronic pain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p26)
One ring heterocyclic compounds defined by C6H7NO. Permitted are any degree of hydrogenation, any substituents and any ortho-fused or ortho-peri-fused ring systems.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
A spasm of the diaphragm that causes a sudden inhalation followed by rapid closure of the glottis which produces a sound.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.
A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.
Pathological processes involving the URETERS.
A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.
A family of gram negative, aerobic, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacteria.
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)
An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.
An autosomal dominant porphyria that is due to a deficiency of COPROPORPHYRINOGEN OXIDASE in the LIVER, the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME. Clinical features include both neurological symptoms and cutaneous lesions. Patients excrete increased levels of porphyrin precursors, 5-AMINOLEVULINATE and COPROPORPHYRINS.
Porphyrins with four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Elevated levels of Coproporphyrin III in the urine and feces are major findings in patients with HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX by the conversion of two propionate groups to two vinyl groups. It is the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by CPO gene. Mutations of CPO gene result in HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.
A group of metabolic diseases due to deficiency of one of a number of LIVER enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of HEME. They are characterized by the accumulation and increased excretion of PORPHYRINS or its precursors. Clinical features include neurological symptoms (PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT), cutaneous lesions due to photosensitivity (PORPHYRIA CUTANEA TARDA), or both (HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA). Hepatic porphyrias can be hereditary or acquired as a result of toxicity to the hepatic tissues.
A diverse group of metabolic diseases characterized by errors in the biosynthetic pathway of HEME in the LIVER, the BONE MARROW, or both. They are classified by the deficiency of specific enzymes, the tissue site of enzyme defect, or the clinical features that include neurological (acute) or cutaneous (skin lesions). Porphyrias can be hereditary or acquired as a result of toxicity to the hepatic or erythropoietic marrow tissues.
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
Colorless reduced precursors of porphyrins in which the pyrrole rings are linked by methylene (-CH2-) bridges.
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.
A vasoconstrictor found in ergot of Central Europe. It is a serotonin agonist that has been used as an oxytocic agent and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
A topical dermatologic agent that is used in the treatment of ACNE VULGARIS and several other skin diseases. The drug has teratogenic and other adverse effects.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.