Nanowires: Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Germanium: A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Nanotubes: Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Electroplating: Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.Bacteriophage M13: Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.Tin Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.Transistors, Electronic: Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.Cadmium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Electromagnetic Radiation: Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Yttrium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.