Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.AmidohydrolasesPenicillin Amidase: An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of penicillin to penicin and a carboxylic acid anion. EC 3.5.1.11.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Alanine Racemase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC 5.1.1.1.Amide Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of either ammonia or an amide with another molecule, in which the linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.1.Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase: An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Ochrobactrum anthropi: A species of gram-negative, obligately aerobic rods. Motility occurs by peritrichous flagella. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Alanine Dehydrogenase: An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.PeptidoglycanAutolysis: The spontaneous disintegration of tissues or cells by the action of their own autogenous enzymes.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Muramic Acids: Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Allophanate Hydrolase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of allophanic acid to two molecules of ammonia plus two molecules of "active carbon dioxide". EC 3.5.1.54.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Teichoic Acids: Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.AminohydrolasesBacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Spermidine: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Penicillin V: A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Urocanate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 4,5-dihydro-4-oxo-5-imidazolepropanoate to urocanate and water. EC 4.2.1.49.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Enzymes, Immobilized: Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Delftia: A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria, in the family COMAMONADACEAE.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Aspartylglucosylaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of N(4)-(beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)-L-asparagine and water to N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylamine and L-aspartate. It acts only on asparagine-oligosaccharides containing one amino acid, i.e. the ASPARAGINE has free alpha-amino and alpha-carboxyl groups. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Deanol: An antidepressive agent that has also been used in the treatment of movement disorders. The mechanism of action is not well understood.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Brevibacterium: A gram-positive organism found in dairy products, fresh and salt water, marine organisms, insects, and decaying organic matter.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Endocannabinoids: Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Diaminopimelic AcidPyruvatesAmmonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Ovomucin: A heterogeneous mixture of glycoproteins responsible for the gel structure of egg white. It has trypsin-inhibiting activity.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Micrococcus luteus: A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.beta-N-Acetyl-Galactosaminidase: A hexosiminidase that specifically hydrolyzes terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminides.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.Citrobacter freundii: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Acetanilides: Compounds based on N-phenylacetamide, that are similar in structure to 2-PHENYLACETAMIDES. They are precursors of many other compounds. They were formerly used as ANALGESICS and ANTIPYRETICS, but often caused lethal METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.NitrosoguanidinesEsterasesAcetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Benzeneacetamides: Compounds based on benzeneacetamide, that are similar in structure to ACETANILIDES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Glycoside HydrolasesRNA, Transfer, Ala: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Sulfhydryl Reagents: Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.GlucosamineGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Polyunsaturated Alkamides: Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Phosphinic Acids: Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Alanine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates alanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.7.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Phenylmethylsulfonyl Fluoride: An enzyme inhibitor that inactivates IRC-50 arvin, subtilisin, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.PolysaccharidesGenes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.