Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.
(S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.
A group of MYCOTOXINS found in CORN contaminated with FUSARIUM fungus. They are chains of about 20 carbons with acidic ester, acetylamino and sometimes other substituents. They inhibit ceramide synthetase conversion of SPHINGOLIPIDS to CERAMIDES.
Antibiotic and mycotoxin from Aspergillus niveus and Penicillium citrinum.
Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
4-Hydroxy-4H-furo(3,2-c)pyran-2(6H)-one. A mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. It is found in unfermented apple and grape juice and field crops. It has antibiotic properties and has been shown to be carcinogenic and mutagenic and causes chromosome damage in biological systems.
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.
A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Chaetomiaceae, order SORDARIALES. Many members are cellulolytic and some mycotoxic. They occur naturally on paper and cotton fabric.
A carcinogenic mycotoxin produced in high yields by strains of the common molds, Aspergillus versicolor, A. nidulans, and an unidentified species of Bipolaris. It causes necrosis of the liver and kidney and has an inhibitory effect on orotic acid incorporation into nuclear RNA.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
A mycotoxin with antibiotic and carcinogenic activity produced by various strains of PENICILLIUM and ASPERGILLUS. It has been found in tobacco, sausages, and corn.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.
A picolinic acid derivative isolated from various Fusarium species. It has been proposed for a variety of therapeutic applications but is primarily used as a research tool. Its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. It probably inhibits DOPAMINE BETA-HYDROXYLASE, the enzyme that converts dopamine to norepinephrine. It may also have other actions, including the inhibition of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
Sick Building Syndrome
A group of symptoms that are two- to three-fold more common in those who work in large, energy-efficient buildings, associated with an increased frequency of headaches, lethargy, and dry skin. Clinical manifestations include hypersensitivity pneumonitis (ALVEOLITIS, EXTRINSIC ALLERGIC); allergic rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL); ASTHMA; infections, skin eruptions, and mucous membrane irritation syndromes. Current usage tends to be less restrictive with regard to the type of building and delineation of complaints. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings
Antifungal metabolite from several fungi, mainly Trichoderma viride; inhibits protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes; proposed as antifungal and antineoplastic; used as tool in cellular biochemistry.
Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.