Mycoplasmatales: An order of highly pleomorphic, gram-negative bacteria including both pathogenic and saprophytic species.Acholeplasma: A genus of gram-negative organisms including saprophytic and parasitic or pathogenic species.Acholeplasma laidlawii: An organism originally isolated from sewage, manure, humus, and soil, but recently found as a parasite in mammals and birds.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Mycoplasmatales Infections: Infections with bacteria of the order MYCOPLASMATALES.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mycoplasma mycoides: The etiological agent of contagious pleuropneumonia (PLEUROPNEUMONIA, CONTAGIOUS) of cattle and goats.Mycoplasma Infections: Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.Pleuropneumonia, Contagious: A pleuropneumonia of cattle and goats caused by species of MYCOPLASMA.Mycoplasma genitalium: A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIA OF SWINE. The organism damages the CILIA in the airways of the pig, and thus compromises one of the most effective mechanical barriers against invading pathogens. The resulting weakening of the IMMUNE SYSTEM can encourage secondary infections, leading to porcine respiratory disease complex.Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal: A chronic, clinically mild, infectious pneumonia of PIGS caused by MYCOPLASMA HYOPNEUMONIAE. Ninety percent of swine herds worldwide are infected with this economically costly disease that primarily affects animals aged two to six months old. The disease can be associated with porcine respiratory disease complex. PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA is often found as a secondary infection.Spiroplasma: A genus of gram-negative, helical bacteria, in the family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, order Entomoplasmatales, causing disease in PLANTS. It has been isolated from TICKS; INSECTS; and PLANTS.Tenericutes: A phylum of gram-negative bacteria consisting of cells bounded by a plasma membrane. Its organisms differ from other bacteria in that they are devoid of cell walls. This phylum was formerly the class Mollicutes. Mollicutes is now the sole class in the phylum Tenericutes.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Phytoplasma: A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.Ureaplasma: A genus of gram-negative, nonmotile bacteria which are common parasitic inhabitants of the urogenital tracts of humans, cattle, dogs, and monkeys.Mycoplasmataceae: A family of gram-negative, non-motile bacteria from human and animal sources. One saprophytic species is known.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Chlamydophila pneumoniae: A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Chlamydophila Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.Chlamydia: A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Ureaplasma Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus UREAPLASMA.Ureaplasma urealyticum: A species of gram-negative bacteria found in the human genitourinary tract (UROGENITAL SYSTEM), oropharynx, and anal canal. Serovars 1, 3, 6, and 14 have been reclassed into a separate species UREAPLASMA parvum.Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.Mycoplasma hominis: A common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and a potential human pathogen, causing infections of the male and female reproductive tracts. It has also been associated with respiratory disease and pharyngitis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Mycoplasma fermentans: A species of the genus MYCOPLASMA, originally isolated infrequently from the lower genital tract of humans, and possessing uncertain pathogenicity. The incognitus strain of M. fermentans has been identified in necrotizing lesions of multiple organs from AIDS and non-AIDS patients dying of an acute influenza-like disease.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Endospore-Forming Bacteria: A group of rods or cocci whose taxonomic affinities are uncertain. They form endospores, thick-walled bodies formed within the vegetative cells of certain bacteria, able to withstand adverse environmental conditions for prolonged periods.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Health Facilities, Proprietary: Health care institutions operated by private groups or corporations for a profit.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Biometric Identification: A method of differentiating individuals based on the analysis of qualitative or quantitative biological traits or patterns. This process which has applications in forensics and identity theft prevention includes DNA profiles or DNA fingerprints, hand fingerprints, automated facial recognition, iris scan, hand geometry, retinal scan, vascular patterns, automated voice pattern recognition, and ultrasound of fingers.Radio Frequency Identification Device: Machine readable patient or equipment identification device using radio frequency from 125 kHz to 5.8 Ghz.Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.