High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.
A gel-forming mucin that is predominantly expressed by submucosal glands of airway tissues and the SUBLINGUAL GLAND. It is one of the principal components of high molecular weight salivary mucin.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
A transmembrane mucin that is found in a broad variety of epithelial tissue. Mucin-4 may play a role in regulating cellular adhesion and in cell surface signaling from the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. Mucin-4 is a heterodimer of alpha and beta chains. The alpha and beta chains result from the proteolytic cleavage of a precursor protein.
A membrane-bound mucin subtype that is primarily found in INTESTINAL MUCOSA. Two closely-related subtypes of this protein have been identified in humans.
A gel-forming mucin that is predominantly associated with the gastric epithelium.
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
A subcategory of mucins that contain SIALIC ACID.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that is similar to CONYZA. Members contain SESQUITERPENES.
Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.
A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI and subsequently inhibits ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A biomineral consisting of layers of crystalized ARAGONITE, separated by interlamellar layers of organic matrix containing beta-CHITIN, and surrounded by an intercrystalline organic membrane of silk fibroin. Nacre is the iridescent substance better known as mother-of-pearl that is secreted by MOLLUSCS.
The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.
A plant genus of the family Orobanchaceae that is parasitic on the roots of other plants. Members contain the flavones, APIGENIN and LUTEOLIN.
A genus of pearl oysters in the family Pteriidae, class BIVALVIA. Both cultured and natural pearls are obtained from species in the genus. They are distinct from the distantly related, edible true oysters of the family OSTREIDAE.
The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.
Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.
Endoscopes for examining the interior of the larynx.
A mass of KERATIN-producing squamous EPITHELIUM that resembles an inverted (suck-in) bag of skin in the MIDDLE EAR. It arises from the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE) and grows into the MIDDLE EAR causing erosion of EAR OSSICLES and MASTOID that contains the INNER EAR.