Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the mouth.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
All deaths reported in a given population.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.
Preprosthetic surgery involving rib, cartilage, or iliac crest bone grafts, usually autologous, or synthetic implants for rebuilding the alveolar ridge.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
A commonly used prosthesis that results in a strong, permanent restoration. It consists of an electrolytically etched cast-metal retainer that is cemented (bonded), using resins, to adjacent teeth whose enamel was previously acid-treated (acid-etched). This type of bridgework is sometimes referred to as a Maryland bridge.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Australia, New Zealand and neighboring islands in the South Pacific Ocean. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Auditory and visual instructional materials.
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
An inflammatory, pruritic disease of the skin and mucous membranes, which can be either generalized or localized. It is characterized by distinctive purplish, flat-topped papules having a predilection for the trunk and flexor surfaces. The lesions may be discrete or coalesce to form plaques. Histologically, there is a "saw-tooth" pattern of epidermal hyperplasia and vacuolar alteration of the basal layer of the epidermis along with an intense upper dermal inflammatory infiltrate composed predominantly of T-cells. Etiology is unknown.
Oral lesions accompanying cutaneous lichen planus or often occurring alone. The buccal mucosa, lips, gingivae, floor of the mouth, and palate are usually affected (in a descending order of frequency). Typically, oral lesions consist of radiating white or gray, velvety, threadlike lines, arranged in a reticular pattern, at the intersection of which there may be minute, white, elevated dots or streaks (Wickham's striae). (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry)
Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.
Conditions in which there is histological damage to the lower epidermis along with a grouped chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis disturbing the interface between the epidermis and dermis. LICHEN PLANUS is the prototype of all lichenoid eruptions. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p398)
An oral retinoid effective in the treatment of psoriasis. It is the major metabolite of ETRETINATE with the advantage of a much shorter half-life when compared with etretinate.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Atrophy and shriveling of the SKIN of the VULVA that is characterized by the whitish LICHEN SCLEROSUS appearance, inflammation, and PRURITUS.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
Premature closure of one or more CRANIAL SUTURES. It often results in plagiocephaly. Craniosynostoses that involve multiple sutures are sometimes associated with congenital syndromes such as ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA; and CRANIOFACIAL DYSOSTOSIS.
The numerous (6-12) small thin-walled spaces or air cells in the ETHMOID BONE located between the eyes. These air cells form an ethmoidal labyrinth.
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
The condition characterized by uneven or irregular shape of the head often in parallelogram shape with a flat spot on the back or one side of the head. It can either result from the premature CRANIAL SUTURE closure (CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS) or from external forces (NONSYNOSTOTIC PLAGIOCEPHALY).
A type of fibrous joint between bones of the head.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A condition characterized by alterations of the sense of taste which may range from mild to severe, including gross distortions of taste quality.
Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
A neoplasm originating from thymic tissue, usually benign, and frequently encapsulated. Although it is occasionally invasive, metastases are extremely rare. It consists of any type of thymic epithelial cell as well as lymphocytes that are usually abundant. Malignant lymphomas that involve the thymus, e.g., lymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease (previously termed granulomatous thymoma), should not be regarded as thymoma. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).