Analogs or derivatives of morphine.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
A narcotic antagonist with some agonist properties. It is an antagonist at mu opioid receptors and an agonist at kappa opioid receptors. Given alone it produces a broad spectrum of unpleasant effects and it is considered to be clinically obsolete.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Compounds based on a partially saturated iminoethanophenanthrene, which can be described as ethylimino-bridged benzo-decahydronaphthalenes. They include some of the OPIOIDS found in PAPAVER that are used as ANALGESICS.
An enkephalin analog that selectively binds to the MU OPIOID RECEPTOR. It is used as a model for drug permeability experiments.
Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.
A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.
The first mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic to be marketed. It is an agonist at the kappa and sigma opioid receptors and has a weak antagonist action at the mu receptor. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1991, p97)
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.
A narcotic used as a pain medication. It appears to be an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and an antagonist or partial agonist at mu opioid receptors.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Rare congenital X-linked disorder of lipid metabolism. Barth syndrome is transmitted in an X-linked recessive pattern. The syndrome is characterized by muscular weakness, growth retardation, DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY, variable NEUTROPENIA, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (type II) and decreases in mitochondrial CARDIOLIPIN level. Other biochemical and morphological mitochondrial abnormalities also exist.
A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.
An abnormal congenital condition, associated with defects in the LAMIN TYPE A gene, which is characterized by premature aging in children, where all the changes of cell senescence occur. It is manifested by premature greying; hair loss; hearing loss (DEAFNESS); cataracts (CATARACT); ARTHRITIS; OSTEOPOROSIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; atrophy of subcutaneous fat; skeletal hypoplasia; elevated urinary HYALURONIC ACID; and accelerated ATHEROSCLEROSIS. Many affected individuals develop malignant tumors, especially SARCOMA.