Monoacylglycerol Lipases: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids EC Compounds based on benzene fused to oxole. They can be formed from methylated CATECHOLS such as EUGENOL.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Endocannabinoids: Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Monoglycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC Receptor Modulators: Compounds that interact with and modulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.Arachidonic AcidsReceptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.AmidohydrolasesReceptor, Cannabinoid, CB2: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on immune cells where it may play a role modulating release of CYTOKINES.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC A family of hexahydropyridines.Polyunsaturated Alkamides: Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.Paraoxon: An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Biphenyl CompoundsCarboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Receptors, Cannabinoid: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for CANNABINOIDS such as those derived from CANNABIS. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as ENDOCANNABINOIDS. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS and CYTOKINES.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Mice, Inbred C57BLHippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Aminopeptidases: A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.p-Chloromercuribenzoic Acid: An organic mercurial used as a sulfhydryl reagent.Grifola: A member of the AGARICALES known for edible MUSHROOMS.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Purkinje Cells: The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.Cytisus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is sometimes called broom because of the shape of the plant. Members produce SPARTEINE.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship: A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Cloprostenol: A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Receptors, Prostaglandin: Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).Genes, araC: Regulatory genes which encode a cyclic AMP receptor protein required for L-arabinose utilization in E. coli. It is an example of positive control or regulation of gene expression in the bacterial operon.Bombax: A plant genus of the family BOMBACACEAE. The fine silky hairs covering the seeds have been used like kapok (CEIBA) for floatation, stuffing, and insulation.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl: Cyclic N-oxide radical functioning as a spin label and radiation-sensitizing agent.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.