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Mixed Tumor, Malignant: A malignant tumor composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mullerian Ducts: A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.Mixed Tumor, Mesodermal: A sarcoma of the body of the uterus arising in older women, composed of more than one mesenchymal tissue, especially including striated muscle cells. It is associated with previous pelvic radiation exposure in 20% of patients. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1702)Mixed Tumor, Mullerian: A tumor, basically a carcinoma with a single sarcoma such as leiomyosarcoma or angiosarcoma or multiple sarcomas of uterine origin. The role of estrogen has been postulated as a possible etiological factor in this tumor. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1703)Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Myoepithelioma: A usually benign tumor made up predominantly of myoepithelial cells.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Carcinosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adenosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm arising simultaneously or consecutively in mesodermal tissue and glandular epithelium of the same part. (Stedman, 25th ed)Testicular Hormones: Hormones produced in the testis.Mesenchymoma: A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)Vaginal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Submandibular Gland NeoplasmsParotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Prostatein: A secreted prostate-specific protein which can bind non-polar steroids, cholesterol and a group of small, proline-rich peptides. The protein is specifically found in RATS and comprises three distinct secretoglobin-related subunits referred to as prostatic steroid-binding protein C1, C2 and C3.Wolffian Ducts: A pair of excretory ducts of the middle kidneys (MESONEPHROI) of an embryo, also called mesonephric ducts. In higher vertebrates, Wolffian ducts persist in the male forming VAS DEFERENS, but atrophy into vestigial structures in the female.46, XX Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a female karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Urogenital Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Wilms Tumor: A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Subrenal Capsule Assay: In vivo method of screening investigative anticancer drugs and biologic response modifiers for individual cancer patients. Fresh tumor tissue is implanted under the kidney capsule of immunocompetent mice or rats; gross and histological assessments follow several days after tumor treatment in situ.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma in which the tumor elements are arranged as finger-like processes or as a solid spherical nodule projecting from an epithelial surface.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Peritoneal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Genitalia: The external and internal organs related to reproduction.Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).Hematometra: Blood-filled UTERUS.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.Freemartinism: A condition occurring in the female offspring of dizygotic twins (TWIN, DIZYGOTIC) in a mixed-sex pregnancy, usually in CATTLE. Freemartinism can occur in other mammals. When placental fusion between the male and the female FETUSES permits the exchange of fetal cells and fetal hormones, TESTICULAR HORMONES from the male fetus can androgenize the female fetus producing a sterile XX/XY chimeric "female"(CHIMERISM).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Wnt4 Protein: A Wnt protein that is involved in regulating multiple developmental processes such as the formation of the KIDNEY; ADRENAL GLANDS; MAMMARY GLANDS; the PITUITARY GLAND; and the female reproductive system. Defects in WNT4 are a cause of ROKITANSKY KUSTER HAUSER SYNDROME.Virilism: Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors: Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Inbred BALB C