Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Mentha: Mentha is a genus of the mint family (LAMIACEAE). It is known for species having characteristic flavor and aroma.Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Chemical EngineeringWood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Photobioreactors: Devices for generating biological products that use light as the energy source. They are used for controlled BIOMASS production such as growing cyanobacteria, mosses, or algae.Bauhinia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain isoacteoside, luteolin, indole-3-carboxylic acid.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Combretum: A plant genus of the family COMBRETACEAE. Triterpenes and combretastatin have been identified in members of this genus.MiningMembrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Garbage: Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)Silicic Acid: A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.PeruHistory, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Mummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.Chemistry, Analytic: The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.WingActinoid Series Elements: A series of radioactive elements from ACTINIUM, atomic number 89, to and including LAWRENCIUM, atomic number 103.Elements, Radioactive: Elements which exhibit atomic emission due to natural or artificial nuclear transformation. These elements spontaneously undergo radioactive decay.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.Lubricants: Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Natural Science Disciplines: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Dominica: An island republic of the West Indies. Its capital is Roseau. It was discovered in 1493 by Columbus and held at different times by the French and the British in the 18th century. A member of the West Indies Federation, it achieved internal self-government in 1967 but became independent in 1978. It was named by Columbus who discovered it on Sunday, Domingo in Spanish, from the Latin Dominica dies, the Lord's Day. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Professional Corporations: Legally authorized corporations owned and managed by one or more professionals (medical, dental, legal) in which the income is ascribed primarily to the professional activities of the owners or stockholders.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.