Metallochaperones: A family of soluble metal binding proteins that are involved in the intracellular transport of specific metal ions and their transfer to the appropriate metalloprotein precursor.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Chemistry, Analytic: The branch of chemistry dealing with detection (qualitative) and determination (quantitative) of substances. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Enterobacter aerogenes: Gram-negative, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature. Both motile and non-motile strains exist. The species is closely related to KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE and is frequently associated with nosocomial infectionsCopyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Selenium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of selenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Se atoms with atomic weights 70-73, 75, 79, 81, and 83-85 are radioactive selenium isotopes.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).TrehaloseChenopodiaceae: The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome: An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)Copper Sulfate: A sulfate salt of copper. It is a potent emetic and is used as an antidote for poisoning by phosphorus. It also can be used to prevent the growth of algae.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Plasmodesmata: Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Phytochelatins: Poly-glutathione peptides composed of (Glu-Cys)n-Gly where n is two to seven. They are biosynthesized by glutathione gamma-glutamylcysteinyltransferase and are found in many PLANTS; YEASTS; and algae. They sequester HEAVY METALS.Aminoacyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.New YorkStudents: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Books