Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Types of prosthetic joints in which both wear surfaces of the joint coupling are metallic.
Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Replacement for a knee joint.
Partial or total replacement of a joint.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
Replacement for a hip joint.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Rigid, semi-rigid, or inflatable cylindric hydraulic devices, with either combined or separate reservoir and pumping systems, implanted for the surgical treatment of organic ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.
Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)
Medical devices which substitute for a nervous system function by electrically stimulating the nerves directly and monitoring the response to the electrical stimulation.
An implant used to replace one or more of the ear ossicles. They are usually made of plastic, Gelfoam, ceramic, or stainless steel.
An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)
A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.
A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
A prosthetic appliance for the replacement of areas of the maxilla, mandible, and face, missing as a result of deformity, disease, injury, or surgery. When the prosthesis replaces portions of the mandible only, it is referred to as MANDIBULAR PROSTHESIS.
A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.
A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Surgical insertion of cylindric hydraulic devices for the treatment of organic ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.
Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.
Replacement of the knee joint.
Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.
Replacement of the hip joint.
Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.
Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.
Holding a PROSTHESIS in place.