Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Memory, Episodic: Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Amnesia: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Mice, Inbred C57BLPsychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Repression, Psychology: The active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Amnesia, Retrograde: Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Paired-Associate Learning: Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Autobiography as Topic: The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Scopolamine Hydrobromide: An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Amnesia, Anterograde: Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Association: A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Tennis Elbow: A condition characterized by pain in or near the lateral humeral epicondyle or in the forearm extensor muscle mass as a result of unusual strain. It occurs in tennis players as well as housewives, artisans, and violinists.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Anisomycin: An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Imagination: A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Time: The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Short Bowel Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Tenotomy: Surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity that is caused by congenital or acquired shortening of a muscle (Stedman, 27th ed). Tenotomy is performed in order to lengthen a muscle that has developed improperly, or become shortened and is resistant to stretching.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.CA1 Region, Hippocampal: One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Theta Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.Catgut: Sterile collagen strands obtained from healthy mammals. They are used as absorbable surgical ligatures and are frequently impregnated with chromium or silver for increased strength. They tend to cause tissue reaction.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.SmokeSeasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Great BritainClinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.EnglandSynaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.