Dictionaries, MedicalMemory, Episodic: Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Biological Psychiatry: An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.PolandHuman Development: Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Unconscious (Psychology): Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Mild Cognitive Impairment: A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.Neuropsychology: A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.Fantasy: An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Political Systems: The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.SwitzerlandTwin Studies as Topic: Methods of detecting genetic etiology in human traits. The basic premise of twin studies is that monozygotic twins, being formed by the division of a single fertilized ovum, carry identical genes, while dizygotic twins, being formed by the fertilization of two ova by two different spermatozoa, are genetically no more similar than two siblings born after separate pregnancies. (Last, J.M., A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.South CarolinaBetula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.