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Medical Staff: Professional medical personnel who provide care to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Medical Staff Privileges: Those rights or activities which are specific to members of the institution's medical staff, including the right to admit private patients.Constitution and Bylaws: The fundamental principles and laws adopted by an organization for the regulation and governing of its affairs.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Hospital-Physician Relations: Includes relationships between hospitals, their governing boards, and administrators in regard to physicians, whether or not the physicians are members of the medical staff or have medical staff privileges.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Hospitals, State: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the state government.Nursing Staff: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in an organized facility, institution, or agency.Hospital-Physician Joint Ventures: A formal financial agreement made between one or more physicians and a hospital to provide ambulatory alternative services to those patients who do not require hospitalization.Hospital Volunteers: Individuals who donate their services to the hospital.Certificate of Need: A certificate issued by a governmental body to an individual or organization proposing to construct or modify a health facility, or to offer a new or different service. The process of issuing the certificate is also included.Hospital Administration: Management of the internal organization of the hospital.Institutional Practice: Professional practice as an employee or contractee of a health care institution.Credentialing: The recognition of professional or technical competence through registration, certification, licensure, admission to association membership, the award of a diploma or degree, etc.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.EnglandPharmacy Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Hospital Units: Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Health Services Misuse: Excessive, under or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Great BritainMedical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.LondonUnited StatesHealth Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.ScotlandState Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Staff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.JapanDental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Inservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Residential Facilities: Long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Homes for the Aged: Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Psychiatric Aides: Persons who assist in the routine care of psychiatric persons, usually under the supervision of the nursing department.Personnel Turnover: A change or shift in personnel due to reorganization, resignation, or discharge.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Organizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Assisted Living Facilities: A housing and health care alternative combining independence with personal care. It provides a combination of housing, personalized supportive services and health care designed to meet the needs, both scheduled and unscheduled, of those who need help with activities of daily living. (www.alfa.org)Morale: The prevailing temper or spirit of an individual or group in relation to the tasks or functions which are expected.Education, Nursing, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Employee Incentive Plans: Programs designed by management to motivate employees to work more efficiently with increased productivity, and greater employee satisfaction.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.