Organizational Affiliation: Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Schools: Educational institutions.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.IndiaStudents, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.College Admission Test: Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Licensure, Medical: The granting of a license to practice medicine.School Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with health and nursing care given to primary and secondary school students by a registered nurse.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.HumanitiesOsteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.WisconsinTeaching: The educational process of instructing.Colonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.PakistanUnited StatesCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Libraries, MedicalHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.BangladeshChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Library Surveys: Collection and analysis of data pertaining to operations of a particular library, library system, or group of independent libraries, with recommendations for improvement and/or ordered plans for further development.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.VirginiaPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Schools, Nursery: Schools for children usually under five years of age.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Schools, Nursing: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Student Dropouts: Individuals who leave school, secondary or college, prior to completion of specified curriculum requirements.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.