Meals: A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Cottonseed Oil: Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Menu PlanningFood Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Lunch: The meal taken at midday.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Phytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.TriglyceridesFood Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.6-Phytase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC 18.104.22.168.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Breakfast: The first meal of the day.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Gastric Juice: The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Molasses: The syrup remaining after sugar is crystallized out of SUGARCANE or sugar beet juice. It is also used in ANIMAL FEED, and in a fermented form, is used to make industrial ETHYL ALCOHOL and ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Diabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Pancreatic Polypeptide: A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.Chromium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Plant Gums: Polysaccharide gums from PLANTS.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Zinc Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.RestaurantsFast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Silage: Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gallbladder Emptying: A process whereby bile is delivered from the gallbladder into the duodenum. The emptying is caused by both contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter mechanism at the choledochal terminus.Feeding Methods: Methods of giving food to humans or animals.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Gastric Acid: Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Gastroparesis: Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of STOMACH muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Fish Flour: A flour made of pulverized, dried fish or fish parts.Apolipoprotein B-48: A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Schools: Educational institutions.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Pyloric Antrum: The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Cocos: A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Gastric Acidity Determination: Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Insulin Infusion Systems: Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Avena sativa: A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Zinc Isotopes: Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Ileostomy: Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin: A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING for the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Sodium Glutamate: One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.