Maple Syrup Urine Disease: An autosomal recessive inherited disorder with multiple forms of phenotypic expression, caused by a defect in the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BRANCHED-CHAIN). These metabolites accumulate in body fluids and render a "maple syrup" odor. The disease is divided into classic, intermediate, intermittent, and thiamine responsive subtypes. The classic form presents in the first week of life with ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, emesis, neonatal seizures, and hypertonia. The intermediate and intermittent forms present in childhood or later with acute episodes of ataxia and vomiting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p936)Acer: A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.BooksCalculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Ketone Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.Nutritive Sweeteners: Any agent that adds not only sweet taste but some energy value to food. They include natural sugars such as SUCROSE; FRUCTOSE; and GALACTOSE; and certain SUGAR ALCOHOLS.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Probability Theory: The branch of mathematics dealing with the purely logical properties of probability. Its theorems underlie most statistical methods. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Fuzzy Logic: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Faculty, Nursing: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a nursing school.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Adolescent Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in individuals 13-18 years.Child Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.Beauty CultureTheilovirus: A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.Delphi Technique: An iterative questionnaire designed to measure consensus among individual responses. In the classic Delphi approach, there is no interaction between responder and interviewer.North AmericaSouth AmericaAmericas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Nylons: Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mathematical Concepts: Numeric or quantitative entities, descriptions, properties, relationships, operations, and events.Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Aptitude: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.