Marmota: A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Hepadnaviridae: A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).Hibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck: An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Escherichia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Colon, Descending: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between TRANSVERSE COLON and the SIGMOID COLON.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.United States Federal Trade Commission: An independent administrative agency concerned with maintaining competitive free enterprise by prohibiting unfair methods of competition and unfair deceptive acts or practices.Antitrust Laws: Those federal and state laws, and their enforcement, that protect trade and commerce from unlawful restraints and monopolies or unfair business practices.Tars: Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Consumer Product SafetyEquipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Autobiography as Topic: The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Poetry as Topic: Literary and oral genre expressing meaning via symbolism and following formal or informal patterns.Legislation, Veterinary: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Projection: A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, whereby that which is emotionally unacceptable in the self is rejected and attributed (projected) to others.Sick Role: Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.Mammoths: An extinct genus of large mammals in the family Elephantidae that fed by grazing on low vegetation. Most died out at the end of the last ice age.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)ColoradoDigitaria: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that many people consider to be a weed.ArizonaElephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Acinonyx: A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Baseball: A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).