Maple Syrup Urine Disease: An autosomal recessive inherited disorder with multiple forms of phenotypic expression, caused by a defect in the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BRANCHED-CHAIN). These metabolites accumulate in body fluids and render a "maple syrup" odor. The disease is divided into classic, intermediate, intermittent, and thiamine responsive subtypes. The classic form presents in the first week of life with ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, emesis, neonatal seizures, and hypertonia. The intermediate and intermittent forms present in childhood or later with acute episodes of ataxia and vomiting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p936)3-Methyl-2-Oxobutanoate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide): A ketone oxidoreductase that catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to ACYL-CoA and CO2. The enzyme requires THIAMINE DIPHOSPHATE as a cofactor. Defects in genes that code for subunits of the enzyme are a cause of MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE. The enzyme was formerly classified as EC 18.104.22.168.Ketone Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Keto AcidsNorleucine: An unnatural amino acid that is used experimentally to study protein structure and function. It is structurally similar to METHIONINE, however it does not contain SULFUR.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Acer: A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Nutritive Sweeteners: Any agent that adds not only sweet taste but some energy value to food. They include natural sugars such as SUCROSE; FRUCTOSE; and GALACTOSE; and certain SUGAR ALCOHOLS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.