Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Hospital Bed Capacity: The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.Hospitals, Special: Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.Hospitals, District: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Cell Engineering: Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.Hospital Planning: Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.Hospital Charges: The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Chemical EngineeringHospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hospital Records: Compilations of data on hospital activities and programs; excludes patient medical records.Hospital Units: Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Libraries, Hospital: Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.Maintenance: The upkeep of property or equipment.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Bioartificial Organs: Artificial organs that are composites of biomaterials and cells. The biomaterial can act as a membrane (container) as in BIOARTIFICIAL LIVER or a scaffold as in bioartificial skin.Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Hospitals, County: Hospitals controlled by the county government.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.United StatesHospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)American Hospital Association: A professional society in the United States whose membership is composed of hospitals.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Hospitals, Municipal: Hospitals controlled by the city government.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Maintenance Chemotherapy: Treatment designed to help prevent a relapse of a disease following the successful primary treatments (INDUCTION CHEMOTHERAPY and CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY) with a long-term low-dose drug therapy.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Patient Readmission: Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.Nursing Service, Hospital: The hospital department which is responsible for the organization and administration of nursing activities.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Hospital Shared Services: Cooperation among hospitals for the purpose of sharing various departmental services, e.g., pharmacy, laundry, data processing, etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.EnglandPolymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Cardiology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cardiac patient.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Guided Tissue Regeneration: Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Hospital Bed Capacity, under 100Hospital Bed Capacity, 100 to 299Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Hospitals, Military: Hospitals which provide care for the military personnel and usually for their dependents.Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Directed Molecular Evolution: The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Bed Occupancy: A measure of inpatient health facility use based upon the average number or proportion of beds occupied for a given period of time.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Hospitals, Veterans: Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.Hospitals, AnimalCosts and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Health Facility Size: The physical space or dimensions of a facility. Size may be indicated by bed capacity.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Silk: A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.Patient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Nurseries, Hospital: Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Psychiatric Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Utilization Review: An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Housekeeping, Hospital: Hospital department which manages and provides the required housekeeping functions in all areas of the hospital.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Oncology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cancer patient.Maintenance and Engineering, Hospital: Hospital department whose primary function is the upkeep and supervision of the buildings and grounds and the maintenance of hospital physical plant and equipment which requires engineering expertise.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Health Facility Merger: The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Microtechnology: Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)BrazilCatchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Medication Systems, Hospital: Overall systems, traditional or automated, to provide medication to patients in hospitals. Elements of the system are: handling the physician's order, transcription of the order by nurse and/or pharmacist, filling the medication order, transfer to the nursing unit, and administration to the patient.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Hospitals, Chronic Disease: Hospitals which provide care to patients with long-term illnesses.Great BritainWounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Personnel Administration, Hospital: Management activities concerned with hospital employees.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Genetic Enhancement: The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Formularies, Hospital: Formularies concerned with pharmaceuticals prescribed in hospitals.Hospital-Physician Relations: Includes relationships between hospitals, their governing boards, and administrators in regard to physicians, whether or not the physicians are members of the medical staff or have medical staff privileges.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Admitting Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the flow of patients and the processing of admissions, discharges, transfers, and also most procedures to be carried out in the event of a patient's death.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Child, Hospitalized: Child hospitalized for short term care.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Multi-Institutional Systems: Institutional systems consisting of more than one health facility which have cooperative administrative arrangements through merger, affiliation, shared services, or other collective ventures.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Health Facility Closure: The closing of any health facility, e.g., health centers, residential facilities, and hospitals.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.