Lysine Carboxypeptidase: A metallocarboxypeptidase that removes C-terminal basic amino acid from peptides and proteins, with preference shown for lysine over arginine. It is a plasma zinc enzyme that inactivates bradykinin and anaphylatoxins.Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Carboxypeptidase H: A ZINC-containing exopeptidase primarily found in SECRETORY VESICLES of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It catalyzes the cleavage of C-terminal ARGININE or LYSINE residues from polypeptides and is active in processing precursors of PEPTIDE HORMONES and other bioactive peptides.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Carboxypeptidase B: A ZINC-dependent carboxypeptidase primary found in the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. The enzyme catalyzes the preferential cleavage of a C-terminal peptidyl-L-lysine or arginine. It was formerly classified as EC 188.8.131.52 and EC 184.108.40.206.Carboxypeptidases A: Carboxypeptidases that are primarily found the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM that catalyze the release of C-terminal amino acids. Carboxypeptidases A have little or no activity for hydrolysis of C-terminal ASPARTIC ACID; GLUTAMIC ACID; ARGININE; LYSINE; or PROLINE. This enzyme requires ZINC as a cofactor and was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11 and EC 18.104.22.168.Cathepsin A: A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 22.214.171.124 and EC 126.96.36.199.Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II: A metallocarboxypeptidase that is predominantly expressed as a membrane-bound enzyme. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of an unsubstituted, C-terminal glutamyl residue, typically from PTEROYLPOLYGLUTAMIC ACIDS. It was formerly classified as EC 188.8.131.52.Carboxypeptidase U: A metallocarboxypeptidase that removes C-terminal lysine and arginine from biologically active peptides and proteins thereby regulating their activity. It is a zinc enzyme with no preference shown for lysine over arginine. Pro-carboxypeptidase U in human plasma is activated by thrombin or plasmin during clotting to form the unstable carboxypeptidase U.gamma-Glutamyl Hydrolase: Catalyzes the hydrolysis of pteroylpolyglutamic acids in gamma linkage to pterolylmonoglutamic acid and free glutamic acid. EC 184.108.40.206.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Polynucleotide 5'-Hydroxyl-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 220.127.116.11.Polyribonucleotide Nucleotidyltransferase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction RNA(n+1) and orthophosphate to yield RNA(n) and a nucleoside diphosphate, or the reverse reaction. ADP, IDP, GDP, UDP, and CDP can act as donors in the latter case. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 18.104.22.168.PolynucleotidesPatents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Exoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Bony Callus: The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Serine-Type D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxypeptidase: A carboxypeptidase that is specific for proteins that contain two ALANINE residues on their C-terminal. Enzymes in this class play an important role in bacterial CELL WALL biosynthesis.Streptomyces griseus: An actinomycete from which the antibiotics STREPTOMYCIN, grisein, and CANDICIDIN are obtained.Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.ChymotrypsinogenHemoglobins, Abnormal: Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.SulfhemoglobinHeinz Bodies: Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.Hemoglobin A: Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Aspartate Aminotransferase, Mitochondrial: An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.Acidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.CitratesAspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 22.214.171.124.