Lymphatic Vessels: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Lymphangiogenesis: The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3: A vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor whose expression is restricted primarily to adult lymphatic endothelium. VEGFR-3 preferentially binds the vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor D and may be involved in the control of lymphangiogenesis.Lymphography: Radiographic study of the lymphatic system following injection of dye or contrast medium.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C: A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR D in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D: A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR C in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.Lymphedema: Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Lymphatic Abnormalities: Congenital or acquired structural abnormalities of the lymphatic system (LYMPHOID TISSUE) including the lymph vessels.Lymphangioma: A benign tumor resulting from a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. Lymphangioendothelioma is a type of lymphangioma in which endothelial cells are the dominant component.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Elephantiasis, Filarial: Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Lymphatic Vessel Tumors: Neoplasms composed of lymphoid tissue, a lattice work of reticular tissue the interspaces of which contain lymphocytes. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in lymphatic vessels.Corneal Neovascularization: New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.Lymphangiectasis: A transient dilatation of the lymphatic vessels.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Lymphoscintigraphy: Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Wuchereria bancrofti: A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Mycoplasma pulmonis: A species of gram-negative bacteria highly pathogenic to RATS and MICE. It is the primary cause of murine respiratory mycoplasmosis.Mice, Inbred C57BLGlycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Neuropilin-2: Transmembrane receptor for CLASS 3 SEMAPHORINS and several vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms. Neuropilin-2 functions either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with NEUROPILIN-1. The binding affinity of neuropilin-2 varies for different class 3 semaphorin isoforms and is dependent on the composition of the dimer. The protein also forms receptor complexes with plexins and with VEGF RECEPTORS, which alters the binding characteristics of the receptor.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Testicular Hydrocele: Accumulation of serous fluid between the layers of membrane (tunica vaginalis) covering the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Venous Valves: Flaps within the VEINS that allow the blood to flow only in one direction. They are usually in the medium size veins that carry blood to the heart against gravity.Lymphocele: Cystic mass containing lymph from diseased lymphatic channels or following surgical trauma or other injury.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Receptors, CCR10: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of LYMPHOCYTES.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Growth Differentiation Factor 2: A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Filaricides: Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Diethylcarbamazine: An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.Cellular Microenvironment: Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Extracellular Fluid: The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Keratin-14: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Chylothorax: The presence of chyle in the thoracic cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Angiopoietin-2: An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.