Lewis Acids: Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.Scandium: Scandium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sc, atomic number 21, and atomic weight 45.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Chloranil: A quinone fungicide used for treatment of seeds and foliage.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)AcetalsIminesCycloaddition Reaction: Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.Boranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)KetonesMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Rats, Inbred LewTongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Equidae: A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.ShoesClostridium butyricum: Type species of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM, a gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae. It is used as a source of PROBIOTICS.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Bentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Lewis Bases: Any chemical species which acts as an electron-pair donor in a chemical bonding reaction with a LEWIS ACID.Bromine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Gilbert Disease: A benign familial disorder, transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia with considerable daily fluctuations of the bilirubin level.FuraldehydePhosphoramides: Amide derivatives of phosphoric acid such as compounds that include the phosphoric triamide (P(=O)(N)(N)(N)) structure.Chemical Processes: The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.Air Ionization: The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Niobium: Niobium. A metal element atomic number 41, atomic weight 92.906, symbol Nb. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tantalum: Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Hydrogen Cyanide: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.IllinoisLigands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).