Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.
Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
Preparations of Cassia senna and C. angustifolia (see SENNA PLANT). They contain sennosides, which are anthraquinone type CATHARTICS and are used in many different preparations as laxatives.
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.
A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)
The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.
An acid-base indicator which is colorless in acid solution, but turns pink to red as the solution becomes alkaline. It is used medicinally as a cathartic.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mainly trees and shrubs. Many members contain mucilage and COUMARINS.
A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
Disorders of increased melanin pigmentation that develop without preceding inflammatory disease.
One of the long-acting synthetic ANTIDIARRHEALS; it is not significantly absorbed from the gut, and has no effect on the adrenergic system or central nervous system, but may antagonize histamine and interfere with acetylcholine release locally.
Oil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Many species of this genus, including the medicinal C. senna and C. angustifolia, have been reclassified into the Senna genus (SENNA PLANT) and some to CHAMAECRISTA.
Incontinence of feces not due to organic defect or illness.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. SENNA EXTRACT is obtained from members of this genus. Members contain ANTHRAQUINONES and have been an ingredient in laxatives (CATHARTICS). Many species of the CASSIA genus have been reclassified into this genus. This bush should not be confused with the Cassia tree (CINNAMOMUM).
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE. Several species have been reclassified to the FRANGULA genus. It is often called buckthorn but should not be confused with other plants called that.
A laxative that undergoes enterohepatic circulation. It may cause jaundice.
Formation of a firm impassable mass of stool in the RECTUM or distal COLON.
Disorders characterized by physical or psychological symptoms that are not real, genuine, or natural.
Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
Coloring matter from the insect Coccus cacti L. It is used in foods, pharmaceuticals, toiletries, etc., as a dye, and also has use as a microscopic stain and biological marker.
All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain ruscogenin. Do not confuse with the Liriope jellyfish (CNIDARIA).
A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.
Conditioning to defecate and urinate in culturally acceptable places.
Eighteen carbon fatty acids that comprise the great majority of CASTOR OIL, which is from the seed of RICINUS.
Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.
The therapy technique of providing the status of one's own AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM function (e.g., skin temperature, heartbeats, brain waves) as visual or auditory feedback in order to self-control related conditions (e.g., hypertension, migraine headaches).
A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the rectum.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.
A disorder characterized by muscle twitches, cramps, and carpopedal spasm, and when severe, laryngospasm and seizures. This condition is associated with unstable depolarization of axonal membranes, primarily in the peripheral nervous system. Tetany usually results from HYPOCALCEMIA or reduced serum levels of MAGNESIUM that may be associated with HYPERVENTILATION; HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; RICKETS; UREMIA; or other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1490)
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.