Lawyers: Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Malpractice: Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.Supreme Court Decisions: Decisions made by the United States Supreme Court.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Hospitals, State: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the state government.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)PakistanPrivatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.FloridaJournal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.KansasCarboxyl and Carbamoyl Transferases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)TexasDrug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.GermanySports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.ArkansasArgasidae: A family of softbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include ARGAS and ORNITHODOROS among others.Child Day Care Centers: Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.Mid-Atlantic Region: A geographical area of the United States comprising the District of Columbia, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Colonic Pouches: Sacs or reservoirs created to function in place of the COLON and/or RECTUM in patients who have undergone restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Sister Mary Joseph's Nodule: Metastatic lesion of the UMBILICUS associated with intra-abdominal neoplasms especially of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or OVARY.Umbilicus: The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.PhiladelphiaFiresPaternity: Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Coroners and Medical Examiners: Physicians appointed to investigate all cases of sudden or violent death.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.New York CityWounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Hallux Rigidus: A condition caused by degenerative arthritis (see OSTEOARTHRITIS) of the METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT of the great toe and characterized by pain and limited dorsiflexion, but relatively unrestricted plantar flexion.Hallux: The innermost digit of the foot in PRIMATES.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Washington