Laryngectomy: Total or partial excision of the larynx.Larynx, Artificial: A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Speech, Alaryngeal: Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.Speech, Esophageal: A method of speech used after laryngectomy, with sound produced by vibration of the column of air in the esophagus against the contracting cricopharyngeal sphincter. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.Cutaneous Fistula: An abnormal passage or communication leading from an internal organ to the surface of the body.Pharyngectomy: Surgical removal of a part of the pharynx. (Dorland, 28th ed)Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Laryngeal Cartilages: The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.Glottis: The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.Voice Disorders: Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.Salivary Gland Fistula: A fistula between a salivary duct or gland and the cutaneous surface of the oral cavity.Aphonia: Complete loss of phonation due to organic disease of the larynx or to nonorganic (i.e., psychogenic) causes.Respiratory Tract Fistula: An abnormal passage communicating between any component of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and surrounding organs.Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Cricoid Cartilage: The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.Deglutition Disorders: Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.Surgical Stomas: Artificial openings created by a surgeon for therapeutic reasons. Most often this refers to openings from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the ABDOMINAL WALL to the outside of the body. It can also refer to the two ends of a surgical anastomosis.Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Punctures: Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.Laryngostenosis: Developmental or acquired stricture or narrowing of the LARYNX. Symptoms of respiratory difficulty depend on the degree of laryngeal narrowing.Phonation: The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Laryngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LARYNX which coordinates many functions such as voice production, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.Glossectomy: Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Neck Dissection: Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Human papillomavirus 11: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing recurrent respiratory PAPILLOMATOSIS; GENITAL WARTS; and other neoplasms.Organ Sparing Treatments: Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).