Pathological processes involving any part of the LARYNX which coordinates many functions such as voice production, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.
Esophageal pH Monitoring
INFLAMMATION, acute or chronic, of the ESOPHAGUS caused by BACTERIA, chemicals, or TRAUMA.
National Health Planning Information Center (U.S.)
Poison Control Centers
Drug Information Services
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Fiber Optic Technology
The area covering the terminal portion of ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of STOMACH at the cardiac orifice.
Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal
Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.
A form of non-allergic rhinitis that is characterized by nasal congestion and posterior pharyngeal drainage.
Nasal Provocation Tests
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.
Health Services Misuse
That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.
Total or partial excision of the larynx.
The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Journal Impact Factor
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).