Laparoscopes: ENDOSCOPES for examining the abdominal and pelvic organs in the peritoneal cavity.Plasticizers: Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Diethylhexyl Phthalate: An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Umbilicus: The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Durable Medical Equipment: Devices which are very resistant to wear and may be used over a long period of time. They include items such as wheelchairs, hospital beds, artificial limbs, etc.Endoscopes: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.Sarcoma, YoshidaArchivesMarketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery: Surgical procedures performed through a natural opening in the body such as the mouth, nose, urethra, or anus, and along the natural body cavities with which they are continuous.Culdoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the female pelvic viscera by means of an endoscope introduced into the pelvic cavity through the posterior vaginal fornix.Abdominal Cavity: The region in the abdomen extending from the thoracic DIAPHRAGM to the plane of the superior pelvic aperture (pelvic inlet). The abdominal cavity contains the PERITONEUM and abdominal VISCERA, as well as the extraperitoneal space which includes the RETROPERITONEAL SPACE.Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.JapanCalibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Punctures: Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Lithotripsy: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Hypersplenism: Condition characterized by splenomegaly, some reduction in the number of circulating blood cells in the presence of a normal or hyperactive bone marrow, and the potential for reversal by splenectomy.Splenic DiseasesEndoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Endoscopes, Gastrointestinal: Instruments for the visual examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Catalogs, LibraryCatalogs as Topic: Ordered compilations of item descriptions and sufficient information to afford access to them.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.