Language Therapy: Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.Speech Therapy: Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.Aphasia: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Sign Language: A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Rehabilitation: Restoration of human functions to the maximum degree possible in a person or persons suffering from disease or injury.Community Integration: Policies and programs which ensure that DISPLACED PERSONS and chronic illnesses receive the support and SOCIAL SERVICES needed to live in their communities.National Institute on Aging (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research into the nature of the aging process and diseases associated with the later stages of life. The Institute was established in 1974.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Massage: The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.Physical Therapy Specialty: The auxiliary health profession which makes use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction of anatomic or physiological origin.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Naturopathy: A drugless system of therapy, making use of physical forces such as air, light, water, heat, massage. Treatments are often diet- and nutrition-oriented with attention given to the patient's personal history and lifestyle. (From Cassileth, Alternative Medicine Handbook, 1998, p329)Chiropractic: An occupational discipline founded by D.D. Palmer in the 1890's based on the relationship of the spine to health and disease.Therapeutic Touch: Placing of the hands of the healer upon the person to be cured with the intent of spiritual energetic healing.Speech-Language Pathology: The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Occupational Therapy: Skilled treatment that helps individuals achieve independence in all facets of their lives. It assists in the development of skills needed for independent living.Los AngelesNew YorkNew JerseyConnecticutVirginiaTrustees: Board members of an institution or organization who are entrusted with the administering of funds and the directing of policy.Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Newcastle Disease: An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.Telefacsimile: A telecommunication system combining the transmission of a document scanned at a transmitter, its reconstruction at a receiving station, and its duplication there by a copier.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Aphasia, Primary Progressive: A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)Anomia: A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)Speech Articulation Tests: Tests of accuracy in pronouncing speech sounds, e.g., Iowa Pressure Articulation Test, Deep Test of Articulation, Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Screening Speech Articulation Test, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale.Articulation Disorders: Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Leukocidins: Pore forming proteins originally discovered for toxic activity to LEUKOCYTES. They are EXOTOXINS produced by some pathogenic STAPHYLOCOCCUS and STREPTOCOCCUS that destroy leukocytes by lysis of the cytoplasmic granules and are partially responsible for the pathogenicity of the organisms.Word Association Tests: Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.EnglandEmployment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Great BritainArchivesSelf-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Dysphonia: Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.Legal Guardians: A legal concept for individuals who are designated to act on behalf of persons who are considered incapable of acting in their own behalf, e.g., minors and persons found to be not mentally competent.