Kwashiorkor: A syndrome produced by severe protein deficiency, characterized by retarded growth, changes in skin and hair pigment, edema, and pathologic changes in the liver, including fatty infiltration, necrosis, and fibrosis. The word is a local name in Gold Coast, Africa, meaning "displaced child". Although first reported from Africa, kwashiorkor is now known throughout the world, but mainly in the tropics and subtropics. It is considered to be related to marasmus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Protein-Energy Malnutrition: The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.Protein-Losing Enteropathies: Pathological conditions in the INTESTINES that are characterized by the gastrointestinal loss of serum proteins, including SERUM ALBUMIN; IMMUNOGLOBULINS; and at times LYMPHOCYTES. Severe condition can result in HYPOGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA or LYMPHOPENIA. Protein-losing enteropathies are associated with a number of diseases including INTESTINAL LYMPHANGIECTASIS; WHIPPLE'S DISEASE; and NEOPLASMS of the SMALL INTESTINE.Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Lactulose: A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Lymphatic Vessels: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Protein Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.South AmericaHome Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Home Nursing: Nursing care given to an individual in the home. The care may be provided by a family member or a friend. Home nursing as care by a non-professional is differentiated from HOME CARE SERVICES provided by professionals: visiting nurse, home health agencies, hospital, or other organized community group.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Gastric Juice: The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Gastric Acid: Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.Pentagastrin: A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)ArchivesGhana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Mannosidase Deficiency Diseases: Diseases caused by the loss of one or more enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of mannoside linkages (MANNOSIDASES). The defects in enzyme activity are primarily associated with genetic mutation of the genes that codes for a particular mannosidase isoenzyme.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase I Deficiency Disease: A urea cycle disorder manifesting in infancy as lethargy, emesis, seizures, alterations of muscle tone, abnormal eye movements, and an elevation of serum ammonia. The disorder is caused by a reduction in the activity of hepatic mitochondrial CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA). (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp50-1)Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency Disease: An inherited metabolic disorder characterized by the intralysosomal accumulation of sulfur-containing lipids (sulfatides) and MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES. Excess levels of both substrates are present in urine. This is a disorder of multiple sulfatase (arylsulfatases A, B, and C) deficiency which is caused by the mutation of sulfatase-modifying factor-1. Neurological deterioration is rapid.Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency Disease: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by absent or decreased PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE activity, the enzyme that regulates gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and neurotransmitter synthesis. Clinical manifestations include lactic acidosis, seizures, respiratory distress, marked psychomotor delay, periodic HYPOGLYCEMIA, and hypotonia. The clinical course may be similar to LEIGH DISEASE. (From Am J Hum Genet 1998 Jun;62(6):1312-9)Peroxisomal Multifunctional Protein-2: A dimeric protein found in liver peroxisomes that plays an important role in FATTY ACID metabolism and steroid metabolism. The dimer is formed by cleavage of a single protein precursor and contains an enoyl-CoA hydratase-2 domain and a second domain that displays (S)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and 17-beta-estradiol dehydrogenase activities. The enzyme is stereospecific with regards to arrangement of the substrate double bonds and position of the 3-hydroxy group of the reaction intermediate. It is complemented by PEROXISOMAL BIFUNCTIONAL ENZYME, which has the opposite reaction stereospecificity.EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Animal Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.Nutritionists: Persons specially trained in NUTRITION SCIENCES.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.United StatesDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.