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Ketosis: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Ketogenic Diet: A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Parturient Paresis: A disease of pregnant and lactating cows and ewes leading to generalized paresis and death. The disease, which is characterized by hypocalcemia, occurs at or shortly after parturition in cows and within weeks before or after parturition in ewes.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Butylene Glycols: 4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.Peripartum Period: The period shortly before, during, and immediately after giving birth.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Diabetic Coma: A state of unconsciousness as a complication of diabetes mellitus. It occurs in cases of extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA or extreme HYPOGLYCEMIA as a complication of INSULIN therapy.Megasphaera: A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ACIDAMINOCOCCACEAE, found in the RUMEN of SHEEP and CATTLE, and also in humans.Abomasum: The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Selenomonas: Curved bacteria, usually crescent-shaped rods, with ends often tapered, occurring singly, in pairs, or short chains. They are non-encapsulated, non-sporing, motile, and ferment glucose. Selenomonas are found mainly in the human buccal cavity, the rumen of herbivores, and the cecum of pigs and several rodents. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma: A serious complication of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA; DEHYDRATION; serum hyperosmolarity; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA in the absence of KETOSIS and ACIDOSIS.Placenta, Retained: A placenta that fails to be expelled after BIRTH of the FETUS. A PLACENTA is retained when the UTERUS fails to contract after the delivery of its content, or when the placenta is abnormally attached to the MYOMETRIUM.KetonesLameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.DairyingCoenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Stomach Diseases: Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.