KetonesKetone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Methyl n-Butyl Ketone: An industrial solvent which causes nervous system degeneration. MBK is an acronym often used to refer to it.Tosyllysine Chloromethyl Ketone: An inhibitor of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES. Acts as an alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.Tosylphenylalanyl Chloromethyl Ketone: An inhibitor of Serine Endopeptidases. Acts as alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Ketosis: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).Coenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Ketogenic Diet: A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenasePentanones: 5-carbon straight-chain or branched-chain ketones.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Mannich Bases: Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Propanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of PROPANOL (C3H7OH).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.EstersHydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)IminesFatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Echinacea: A genus of perennial herbs used topically and internally. It contains echinacoside, GLYCOSIDES; INULIN; isobutyl amides, resin, and SESQUITERPENES.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Butylene Glycols: 4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Friends: Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.ColoradoEarly Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)bcl-Associated Death Protein: A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Urine Specimen Collection: Methods or procedures used to obtain samples of URINE.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.ButanonesRosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.