Jehovah's Witnesses: Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures: The treatment of patients without the use of allogeneic BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS or blood products.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Treatment Refusal: Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Conscience: The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Child Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Operative Blood Salvage: Recovery of blood lost from surgical procedures for reuse by the same patient in AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS. It is collected during (intraoperatively) or after completion of (postoperatively) the surgical procedures.Group Processes: The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Malpractice: Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)RussiaMoscowCommitment of Mentally Ill: Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.Mentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: A group of religious bodies tracing their origin to Joseph Smith in 1830 and accepting the Book of Mormon as divine revelation. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Bible: The book composed of writings generally accepted by Christians as inspired by God and of divine authority. (Webster, 3d ed)FinlandNigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Glucaric Acid: A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.Iron-Dextran Complex: A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)Hate: An enduring attitude or sentiment toward persons or objects manifested by anger, aversion and desire for the misfortune of others.