Iridoids: A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).Iridoid Glycosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Iridoid Glucosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glucoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Scrophulariaceae: The figwort plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by bisexual flowers with tubular corollas (fused petals) that are bilaterally symmetrical (two-lips) and have four stamens in most, two of which are usually shorter.Cornus: A plant genus of the family CORNACEAE. It is widely cultivated for the attractive flowers.Gardenia: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain genepin, from which geniposide is obtained for use as a crosslinking agent in ADHESIVES, and 3-caffeoyl-4-sinapoylquinic acid.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Dipsacaceae: A plant family of the order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes called the teasel family.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Sambucus: A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE known for elderberries.Acanthaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.Verbena: A plant genus of the family VERBENACEAE. Members contain verbenachalcone (dimeric dihydrochalcone), iridoids, and phenylethanoids.Scrophularia: A plant genus of the family SCROPHULARIACEAE. Members contain iridoids.Syringa: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Oleuropein has been identified in the stem bark.Medicine, Tibetan Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Tibetan culture.Oleaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. The leaves are usually opposite and the flowers usually have four sepals, four petals, two stamens, and two fused carpels that form a single superior ovary.Swertia: A plant genus of the family GENTIANACEAE. It is a source of swertiapuniside and IRIDOID GLYCOSIDES.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)GlucosidesCardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Morinda: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glycosides and ANTHRAQUINONES.Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Veronica: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain bis-sesquiterpene and iridoid glucosides.Glycoside HydrolasesApocynaceae: The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Cistanche: A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Members contain phenylethanoid glycosides.Lonicera: A plant genus of the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glucosides.Patrinia: A plant genus of the family VALERIANACEAE. Members contain ursolic acid and oleanolic acid glycosides, sulfapatrinosides (triterpenoid glycosides), and patriscabrol (iridolactone).Ajuga: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains cyasterone, ajugasterone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, 8-acetylharpagide (an iridoid glycoside).Orobanchaceae: The broom-rape plant family of the order Lamiales.Digitalis Glycosides: Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.Gelsemium: A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Gelsemiaceae). The sometimes used common name of trumpet flower is also used for DATURA.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.PicratesDigitoxin: A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)PyransViburnum: A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. The common name derives from its traditional use for menstrual cramps. It is a source of viburnine, valerianic acid, vibsanin, and ursolic acid. Note that true cranberry is VACCINIUM MACROCARPON.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Optical Rotation: The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.Cardenolides: C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)TriterpenesPlant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Flavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Ericaceae: The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.Eremophila Plant: A plant genus of the family MYOPORACEAE. Members have been used in FOLK MEDICINE.Myoporaceae: A plant family of the order Scrophulariales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida.