Iodoacetamide: An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Sulfhydryl Reagents: Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Iodoacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.Dithionitrobenzoic Acid: A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.Dithiothreitol: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.Chloromercuribenzoates: Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Mercuribenzoates: Mercury-containing benzoic acid derivatives.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ergothioneine: A naturally occurring metabolite of HISTIDINE that has antioxidant properties.MercaptoethanolAlkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Phenylmethylsulfonyl Fluoride: An enzyme inhibitor that inactivates IRC-50 arvin, subtilisin, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Cerulenin: An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.p-Chloromercuribenzoic Acid: An organic mercurial used as a sulfhydryl reagent.EthylenediaminesOxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Isoflurophate: A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.BenzophenonesSunscreening Agents: Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Receptors, Interleukin-8: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-8. Two specific receptor subtypes (type A and B) have been found and bind IL-8 with high affinity.Heliotropium: A plant genus in the family Boraginaceae, order Lamiales, subclass Asteridae. This is the True Heliotrope that should not be confused with an unrelated plant sometimes called Garden Heliotrope (VALERIAN).Receptors, Catecholamine: Cell surface proteins that bind catecholamines with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The catecholamine messengers epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are synthesized from tyrosine by a common biosynthetic pathway.Histamine H3 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTORS. They have been used to correct SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and MEMORY DISORDERS.Receptors, Histamine H3: A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Cosmic Dust: Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)