A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.
Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.
Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.
Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Selection of a type of occupation or profession.
An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.
Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.
Professional practice as an employee or contractee of a health care institution.
Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.
Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Organizations which certify physicians and dentists as specialists in various fields of medical and dental practice.
Major administrative divisions of the hospital.
Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.
Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
Use for general articles concerning medical education.
Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.
Educational programs structured in such a manner that the participating professionals, physicians, or students develop an increased awareness of their performance, usually on the basis of self-evaluation questionnaires.
The educational process of instructing.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Physicians who are employed to work exclusively in hospital settings, primarily for managed care organizations. They are the attending or primary responsible physician for the patient during hospitalization.
A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.
System of herbal medicine practiced in Japan by both herbalists and practitioners of modern medicine. Kampo originated in China and is based on Chinese herbal medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).
Systematic discussions and teaching relating to patient care.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.
Physicians who serve in a medical and administrative capacity as head of an organized medical staff and who also may serve as liaison for the medical staff with the administration and governing board.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.
The interactions between physician and patient.
Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.
Women licensed to practice medicine.
Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
A medical discipline that is based on the philosophy that all body systems are interrelated and dependent upon one another for good health. This philosophy, developed in 1874 by Dr. Andrew Taylor Still, recognizes the concept of "wellness" and the importance of treating illness within the context of the whole body. Special attention is placed on the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
The services rendered by members of the health profession and non-professionals under their supervision.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The non-profit, non-governmental organization which collects, processes, and distributes data on hospital use. Two programs of the Commission are the Professional Activity Study and the Medical Audit Program.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.
Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.
A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.
The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Hospitals organized and controlled by a group of physicians who practice together and provide each other with mutual support.
The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
The expected function of a member of the medical profession.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Providers of initial care for patients. These PHYSICIANS refer patients when appropriate for secondary or specialist care.
Systematic efforts to assist individuals in selecting an occupation or suitable employment on the basis of aptitude, education, etc.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.
A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.
Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.
The granting of a license to practice medicine.
The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.
Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.
A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.
Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.
Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.
A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Hospitals controlled by the city government.
Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.
Health care provided on a continuing basis from the initial contact, following the patient through all phases of medical care.
The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.
The transferring of patient care responsibility from one health-care professional to another.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.
A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.
Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.
Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.
Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.
Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Rooms occupied by one or more individuals during a stay in a health facility. The concept includes aspects of environment, design, care, or economics.
Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.
Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
An organized group of three or more full-time physicians rendering services for a fixed prepayment.
The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
Physicians who hold degrees from medical schools in countries other than the ones in which they practice.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.
Excessive, under or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.
Steroidal compounds with abortifacient activity.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Procedures concerned with the remedial treatment or prevention of diseases.
Formularies concerned with pharmaceuticals prescribed in hospitals.
The observation and analysis of movements in a task with an emphasis on the amount of time required to perform the task.
Coumarin derivative that acts as a long acting oral anticoagulant.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.
Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.
Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people of KOREA.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
An excessive stress reaction to one's occupational or professional environment. It is manifested by feelings of emotional and physical exhaustion coupled with a sense of frustration and failure.
A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.
Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.
Efforts to reduce risk, to address and reduce incidents and accidents that may negatively impact healthcare consumers.
The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
The expected function of a member of a particular profession.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.
The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Systems used to prompt or aid the memory. The systems can be computerized reminders, color coding, telephone calls, or devices such as letters and postcards.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.
Design of patient care wherein institutional resources and personnel are organized around patients rather than around specialized departments. (From Hospitals 1993 Feb 5;67(3):14)
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Act of listening for sounds within the heart.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.
Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.