Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Holography: The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.Radar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.Eye Hemorrhage: Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Moire Topography: A method of three-dimensional morphometry in which contour maps are produced from the overlapping interference fringes created when an object is illuminated by beams of coherent light issuing from two different point sources.Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Axial Length, Eye: The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Lenses, Intraocular: Artificial implanted lenses.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Physical Processes: The forces and principles of action of matter and energy.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Tissue Embedding: The technique of placing cells or tissue in a supporting medium so that thin sections can be cut using a microtome. The medium can be paraffin wax (PARAFFIN EMBEDDING) or plastics (PLASTIC EMBEDDING) such as epoxy resins.Tomography: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.Posters as Topic: Single or multi-sheet notices made to attract attention to events, activities, causes, goods, or services. They are for display, usually in a public place and are chiefly pictorial.Asepsis: The prevention of access by infecting organisms to the locus of potential infection.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Peptide Nucleic Acids: DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.