Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Insurance, Liability: Insurance against loss resulting from liability for injury or damage to the persons or property of others.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Insurance: Coverage by contract whereby one part indemnifies or guarantees another against loss by a specified contingency.Malpractice: Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Insurance, Long-Term Care: Health insurance to provide full or partial coverage for long-term home care services or for long-term nursing care provided in a residential facility such as a nursing home.Insurance, Life: Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.Insurance Carriers: Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.Insurance Pools: An organization of insurers or reinsurers through which particular types of risk are shared or pooled. The risk of high loss by a particular insurance company is transferred to the group as a whole (the insurance pool) with premiums, losses, and expenses shared in agreed amounts.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Insurance Selection Bias: Adverse or favorable selection bias exhibited by insurers or enrollees resulting in disproportionate enrollment of certain groups of people.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Insurance Benefits: Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.Defensive Medicine: The alterations of modes of medical practice, induced by the threat of liability, for the principal purposes of forestalling lawsuits by patients as well as providing good legal defense in the event that such lawsuits are instituted.United StatesInsurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Insurance Claim Reporting: The design, completion, and filing of forms with the insurer.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Insurance, Major Medical: Insurance providing a broad range of medical services and supplies, when prescribed by a physician, whether or not the patient is hospitalized. It frequently is an extension of a basic policy and benefits will not begin until the basic policy is exhausted.Insurance, Accident: Insurance providing coverage for physical injury suffered as a result of unavoidable circumstances.National Health Insurance, United StatesUniversal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Insurance Claim Review: Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.Infusions, Intraosseous: The administration of medication or fluid through a needle directly into the bone marrow. The technique is especially useful in the management of pediatric emergencies when intravenous access to the systemic circulation is difficult.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Compensation and Redress: Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Hereditary Sensory and Motor Neuropathy: A group of slowly progressive inherited disorders affecting motor and sensory peripheral nerves. Subtypes include HMSNs I-VII. HMSN I and II both refer to CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE. HMSN III refers to hypertrophic neuropathy of infancy. HMSN IV refers to REFSUM DISEASE. HMSN V refers to a condition marked by a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with spastic paraplegia (see SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA, HEREDITARY). HMSN VI refers to HMSN associated with an inherited optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY), and HMSN VII refers to HMSN associated with retinitis pigmentosa. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Insurance, Psychiatric: Insurance providing benefits to cover part or all of the psychiatric care.Medical Assistance: Financing of medical care provided to public assistance recipients.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Insurance, Physician Services: Insurance providing benefits for the costs of care by a physician which can be comprehensive or limited to surgical expenses or for care provided only in the hospital. It is frequently called "regular medical expense" or "surgical expense".Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: An Act prohibiting a health plan from establishing lifetime limits or annual limits on the dollar value of benefits for any participant or beneficiary after January 1, 2014. It permits a restricted annual limit for plan years beginning prior to January 1, 2014. It provides that a health plan shall not be prevented from placing annual or lifetime per-beneficiary limits on covered benefits. The Act sets up a competitive health insurance market.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Insurance, Disability: Insurance designed to compensate persons who lose wages because of illness or injury; insurance providing periodic payments that partially replace lost wages, salary, or other income when the insured is unable to work because of illness, injury, or disease. Individual and group disability insurance are two types of such coverage. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p207)Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Health Insurance Exchanges: State-provided health insurance marketplaces established under the PATIENT PROTECTION AND AFFORDABLE CARE ACT.Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Hydrocodone: Narcotic analgesic related to CODEINE, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant.Twins, Dizygotic: Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.Cellulomonas: A genus of aerobic or facultatively anaerobic BACTERIA, in the family Cellulomonadaceae. It is found in the SOIL and capable of hydrolyzing CELLULOSE.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Twins, Monozygotic: Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Gray Platelet Syndrome: A rare, inherited platelet disorder characterized by a selective deficiency in the number and contents of platelet alpha-granules. It is associated with THROMBOCYTOPENIA, enlarged platelets, and prolonged bleeding time.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Transsexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Tax Exemption: Status not subject to taxation; as the income of a philanthropic organization. Tax-exempt organizations may also qualify to receive tax-deductible donations if they are considered to be nonprofit corporations under Section 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code.Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Aid to Families with Dependent Children: Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.TaiwanGovernment Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pensions: Fixed sums paid regularly to individuals.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Employee Retirement Income Security Act: A 1974 Federal act which preempts states' rights with regard to workers' pension benefits and employee benefits. It does not affect the benefits and rights of employees whose employer is self-insured. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993)Income Tax: Tax on the net income of an individual, organization, or business.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from accessed 1/31/2003)CaliforniaSubstance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Blue Cross Blue Shield Insurance Plans: Prepaid health and hospital insurance plan.Infanticide: The killing of infants at birth or soon after.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Insurance, Surgical: A specific type of health insurance which provides surgeons' fees for specified amounts according to the type of surgery listed in the policy.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Medical Indigency: The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.VirginiaConsumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Managed Competition: A strategy for purchasing health care in a manner which will obtain maximum value for the price for the purchasers of the health care and the recipients. The concept was developed primarily by Alain Enthoven of Stanford University and promulgated by the Jackson Hole Group. The strategy depends on sponsors for groups of the population to be insured. The sponsor, in some cases a health alliance, acts as an intermediary between the group and competing provider groups (accountable health plans). The competition is price-based among annual premiums for a defined, standardized benefit package. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993)Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Mandatory Programs: Programs in which participation is required.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Medical Savings Accounts: Tax-exempt trusts or custodial accounts established by individuals with financial institutions for saving money for future medical expenses.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Fee-for-Service Plans: Method of charging whereby a physician or other practitioner bills for each encounter or service rendered. In addition to physicians, other health care professionals are reimbursed via this mechanism. Fee-for-service plans contrast with salary, per capita, and prepayment systems, where the payment does not change with the number of services actually used or if none are used. (From Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.HomoarginineBenztropine: A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Carisoprodol: A centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose mechanism of action is not completely understood but may be related to its sedative actions. It is used as an adjunct in the symptomatic treatment of musculoskeletal conditions associated with painful muscle spasm. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1202)Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.FloridaEuphoria: An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.Group Purchasing: A shared service which combines the purchasing power of individual organizations or facilities in order to obtain lower prices for equipment and supplies. (From Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Miosis: Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Rate Setting and Review: A method of examining and setting levels of payments.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Catastrophic Illness: An acute or prolonged illness usually considered to be life-threatening or with the threat of serious residual disability. Treatment may be radical and is frequently costly.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Preferred Provider Organizations: Arrangements negotiated between a third-party payer (often a self-insured company or union trust fund) and a group of health-care providers (hospitals and physicians) who furnish services at lower than usual fees, and, in return, receive prompt payment and an expectation of an increased volume of patients.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Retirement: The state of being retired from one's position or occupation.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Congenital Hypothyroidism: A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.Insanity Defense: A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)Criminal Law: A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.Single-Payer System: An approach to health care financing with only one source of money for paying health care providers. The scope may be national (the Canadian System), state-wide, or community-based. The payer may be a governmental unit or other entity such as an insurance company. The proposed advantages include administrative simplicity for patients and providers, and resulting significant savings in overhead costs. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993, p106)Wills: Legal documents that are declarations of individuals' wishes regarding the disposal of their property or estate after death; esp: written instruments, legally executed, by which dispositions are made of estates. LIVING WILLS are written declarations regarding prolongation of life by extraordinary means.Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cost Allocation: The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.Workers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Public Assistance: Financial assistance to impoverished persons for the essentials of living through federal, state or local government programs.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Labor Unions: Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Lawyers: Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.OregonDisclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Clavulanic Acid: Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Median Neuropathy: Disease involving the median nerve, from its origin at the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical features include weakness of wrist and finger flexion, forearm pronation, thenar abduction, and loss of sensation over the lateral palm, first three fingers, and radial half of the ring finger. Common sites of injury include the elbow, where the nerve passes through the two heads of the pronator teres muscle (pronator syndrome) and in the carpal tunnel (CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME).Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Uncompensated Care: Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Not-For-Profit Insurance Plans: Health insurance plans that are not intended to generate profit.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.New JerseyTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Supreme Court Decisions: Decisions made by the United States Supreme Court.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.