Information Science: The field of knowledge, theory, and technology dealing with the collection of facts and figures, and the processes and methods involved in their manipulation, storage, dissemination, publication, and retrieval. It includes the fields of COMMUNICATION; PUBLISHING; LIBRARY SCIENCE; and informatics.Library Science: Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Librarians: Specialists in the management of a library or the services rendered by a library, bringing professional skills to administration, organization of material and personnel, interpretation of bibliothecal rules, the development and maintenance of the library's collection, and the provision of information services.Libraries, MedicalScience: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Stars, Celestial: Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Neptune: The eighth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its two natural satellites are Nereid and Triton.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Pharmacopoeias as Topic: Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Inventories, Hospital: Materials and equipment in stock; includes drugs in pharmacies, blood in blood banks, etc.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.PennsylvaniaEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Entrepreneurship: The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.College Admission Test: Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.