Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Care of infants in the home or institution.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The use of animals as investigational subjects.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Families who care for neglected children or patients unable to care for themselves.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.
Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Female parents, human or animal.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.
A child or adolescent who is deserted by parents or parent substitutes without regard for its future care.
Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)
Hospital department responsible for administering educational and training activities pertaining to health for patients and staff.
Educational institutions.
Physicians appointed to investigate all cases of sudden or violent death.
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.