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Indole Alkaloids: Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids: Compounds formed by condensation of secologanin with tryptamine resulting in a tetrahydro-beta-carboline which is processed further to a number of bioactive compounds. These are especially found in plants of the APOCYNACEAE; LOGANIACEAE; and RUBIACEAE families.Catharanthus: A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rauwolfia: A plant genus of the APOCYNACEAE or dogbane family. Alkaloids from plants in this genus have been used as tranquilizers and antihypertensive agents. RESERPINE is derived from R. serpentina.Aspidosperma: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. It contains ellipticine.Vinca Alkaloids: A group of indole-indoline dimers which are ALKALOIDS obtained from the VINCA genus of plants. They inhibit polymerization of TUBULIN into MICROTUBULES thus blocking spindle formation and arresting cells in METAPHASE. They are some of the most useful ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Alstonia: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Members contain echitovenidine, echitamine, venenatine (an indole alkaloid), and anti-inflammatory triterpenoidsCarbon-Nitrogen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.Ergot Alkaloids: Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.Prenylation: Attachment of isoprenoids (TERPENES) to other compounds, especially PROTEINS and FLAVONOIDS.Lyngbya Toxins: Toxins isolated from any species of the seaweed Lyngbya or similar chemicals from other sources, including mollusks and micro-organisms. These have been found to be potent tumor promoters. They are biosynthesized from TRYPTOPHAN; VALINE; and METHIONINE nonribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT).Tabernaemontana: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE that contains bisindole alkaloids and IBOGAINE.Uncaria: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain uncarine and other cytotoxic and hypotensive oxindole alkaloids.Iridoid Glucosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glucoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Ibogaine: One of several indole alkaloids extracted from Tabernanthe iboga, Baill. It has a complex pharmacological profile, and interacts with multiple systems of neurotransmission. Ibogaine has psychoactive properties and appears to modulate tolerance to opiates.Apocynaceae: The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.Psychotria: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain psychotridine and brachycerine (indole alkaloids).Iridoids: A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).Tryptamines: Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Gelsemium: A plant genus of the family LOGANIACEAE (classified by some botanists as Gelsemiaceae). The sometimes used common name of trumpet flower is also used for DATURA.Mitragyna: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain antimalarial (ANTIMALARIALS) and analgesic (ANALGESICS) indole alkaloids.Alocasia: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain beta-glucosidases and trypsin inhibitors.Cinchona Alkaloids: Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Berberine Alkaloids: A group of related plant alkaloids that contain the BERBERINE heterocyclic ring structure.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids: Alkaloids derived from TYRAMINE combined with 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde via a norbelladine pathway, including GALANTAMINE, lycorine and crinine. They are found in the Amaryllidaceae (LILIACEAE) plant family.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Aconitum: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain a number of diterpenoid alkaloids including: aconitans, hypaconitine, ACONITINE, jesaconitine, ignavine, napelline, and mesaconitine. The common name of Wolfbane is similar to the common name for ARNICA.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Aporphines: Dibenzoquinolines derived in plants from (S)-reticuline (BENZYLISOQUINOLINES).Claviceps: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Clavicipitaceae, order Hypocreales, parasitic on various grasses (POACEAE). The sclerotia contain several toxic alkaloids. Claviceps purpurea on rye causes ergotism.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Carbolines: A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.Benzylisoquinolines: ISOQUINOLINES with a benzyl substituent.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Harmine: Alkaloid isolated from seeds of Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllaceae. It is identical to banisterine, or telepathine, from Banisteria caapi and is one of the active ingredients of hallucinogenic drinks made in the western Amazon region from related plants. It has no therapeutic use, but (as banisterine) was hailed as a cure for postencephalitic Parkinson disease in the 1920's.Delphinium: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain ACONITINE and other diterpenoid alkaloids.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Solanaceous Alkaloids: Alkaloids, mainly tropanes, elaborated by plants of the family Solanaceae, including Atropa, Hyoscyamus, Mandragora, Nicotiana, Solanum, etc. Some act as cholinergic antagonists; most are very toxic; many are used medicinally.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Berberine: An alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Berberidaceae. It is also found in many other plants. It is relatively toxic parenterally, but has been used orally for various parasitic and fungal infections and as antidiarrheal.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Neotyphodium: The anamorphic form of the fungus EPICHLOE. Many Neotyphodium species produce ERGOT ALKALOIDS.Coptis: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE and other isoquinoline ALKALOIDS.Rutaceae: A plant family in the order Sapindales that grows in warmer regions and has conspicuous flowers.Tryptophanase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tryptophan and water to indole, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein, requiring K+. It also catalyzes 2,3-elimination and beta-replacement reactions of some indole-substituted tryptophan analogs of L-cysteine, L-serine, and other 3-substituted amino acids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.1.99.1.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.SkatoleErgotism: Poisoning caused by ingesting ergotized grain or by the misdirected or excessive use of ergot as a medicine.Lycopodium: A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain ALKALOIDS. Lycopodium oil is obtained from L. clavatum.Ergotamine: A vasoconstrictor found in ergot of Central Europe. It is a serotonin agonist that has been used as an oxytocic agent and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.