Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
The informal or formal organization of a group of people based on a network of personal relationships which is influenced by the size and composition, etc., of the group.
Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.